Speakers! Please Register Below
Below is the list of confirmed speakers - Watch this space for further updates
Mr. Sajjad Ahmad; FRCOphth, PhD
Sajjad Ahmad is a consultant ophthalmic surgeon at Moorfields Eye Hospital and an honorary senior lecturer at the UCL Institute of Ophthalmology. His clinical expertise is in corneal and ocular surface diseases, and in particular patients with inflammatory eye diseases such as mucous membrane pemphigoid and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. He also has an interest in ocular surface reconstruction using cultured epithelial therapies particularly in patients with chemical burns and aniridia related keratopathy. His research interest is in stem cell biology relevant to the ocular surface (cornea and conjunctiva) and corneal endothelium. As his research is translational in nature, he runs several early phase clinical trials for corneal and ocular surface diseases.
Prof. John Armitage
Professor John Armitage PhD, School of Clinical Sciences, University of BristolAfter postdoctoral positions with the MRC in Cambridge and Oak Ridge National Laboratory,USA, John moved to Bristol to help establish Bristol Eye Bank. This became one of thelargest in Europe and has supplied corneas for more than 30,000 transplants. John is alsoDirector of Bristol Heart Valve Bank and lead for the Bristol Biobank Initiative. His researchinterests include corneal transplant outcomes and immunology. John is an honorary NHS Consultant Clinical Scientist and International Consultant to the Swedish Corneal TransplantRegistry. John is President Elect of the European Eye Bank Association, a member of the Society for Cryobiology Board of Governors, and Associate Editor of Cryobiology.
Prof. Roger Buckley; MA, BM BCh, FRCS, FRCOphth, HonFCOptom
Roger Buckley is Emeritus Professor of Ocular Medicine at Anglia Ruskin University in Cambridge. He is also Associate Director of the Vision and Eye Research Unit of the Postgraduate Medical Institute of that University.
In addition, he is an Honorary Visiting Specialist at Addenbrooke’s Hospital in Cambridge and an Honorary Consultant Ophthalmologist to Moorfields Eye Hospital in London. He was formerly a Consultant Ophthalmologist and Director of the Contact Lens and Prosthesis Department at Moorfields.Throughout his career, Roger Buckley has taken a particular interest in ocular surface disease, including ocular allergy, and in contact lens medicine.
Mr. Fook Chang Lam; FRCOphth
Fook Chang is a consultant ophthalmologist specialising in cornea and external eye disease at Worthing and St Richard’s Hospitals in West Sussex. Following Basic and Higher Specialist Training in the West of Scotland, he completed fellowships at the Sussex Eye Hospital, Moorfields Eye Hospital and Queen Victoria Hospital. Through a scholarship from the Royal College of Ophthalmologist with the Pfizer Ophthalmic Fellowship, he travelled abroad for a further corneal fellowship at the Netherlands Institute for Innovative Ocular Surgery picking up the latest innovative corneal lamellar surgical techniques. He is a regular contributor at international wet lab courses on DMEK and other advanced corneal transplantation techniques.
Bronagh Clarke; MSc(Hons), MCOptom, DIpTp(IP)
Bronagh Clarke is a Principal Optometrist with 10 years of experience in complex medical contact lens fitting. She is Joint Head of the Contact Lens Department at Moorfields Eye Hospital. She completed her Masters in Clinical Optometry with City University in 2017 and is a non-medical independent prescriber. She has been working with colleagues to establish the use of In Vivo Confocal Microscopy in clinical care and has published and presented in this area
Prof Harminder Singh Dua, MBBS, DO, DO(London), MS, MNAMS, FFMLM, FRCS(Edinburgh), FEBO, FRCOphth, FRCP(Edinburgh, Hon.), FCOptom.(Hon.), FRCOphth.(Hon.), MD, PhD
Prof Harminder Singh Dua is Chair and Professor of Ophthalmology at the Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham since 1994 and joint Head of Service, Department of Ophthalmology, Queens Medical Centre, Nottingham since January 2018.
He is currently Editor-in-chief of the Journal of EuCornea, Master of the Oxford Ophthalmological Congress, UK, President of The European association for vision and eye research Foundation (EVERf, re-appointed 2017), member of the Academia Ophthalmologica Internationalis and the American Ophthalmological Society, Board member of the International Council of Ophthalmology and Trustee of the Sussex Eye Foundation. He was the 9th President of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists UK (2011-14) and has served as Editor-in-Chief of the British Journal of Ophthalmology (2007-14); President of the European society of cornea and ocular surface diseases specialists (EuCornea, 2011-13), President of the European association for vision and eye research (EVER, 2008) and of the EVER Foundation (EVERf, 2010-14). He was Trustee of Sight Savers International (2008-12) and was member of the International steering committee of the second Dry Eye Workshop and served on the ‘Definition and Classification committee’ (DEWS II, 2015-17).
Amongst his over one hundred and twenty five awards and accolades are The Rotary Foundation Global Alumni Service to Humanity Award (2013), The Times Higher Education Award 2014 for ‘Research project of the year’; Vice-chancellor’s medal (2016), ESASO Award for Excellence in Teaching and Training (2019) and several medals and eponymous lectures. He has recently been elected as an Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists, and is Honorary Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh and the College of Optometrists UK, the highest accolade conferred by the respective Colleges. He was listed by the magazine ‘Ophthalmologist’ in the top 20 most influential individuals in Ophthalmology worldwide (2014); and amongst in the top 100 in 2016 and 2018. He was one of five Ophthalmologists in the list of ‘Britain’s Top Doctors’ (2010) published by The Times magazine. He has been endowed with honorary life memberships of four international academic societies. One eponymous lecture, “The Dua Lecture” Birmingham, and a seminar room in the Nottingham post-graduate centre, “The Dua Room” have been named after him.
He has successfully supervised 48 PhD and MD post-graduate students, has published over 350 papers and has an H-index of 67. His discovery of the pre-Descemets layer (Dua’s layer) in 2013 has enhanced understanding of lamellar corneal surgery, posterior corneal pathology and led to the innovation of three novel surgical procedures. The layer has been recently endorsed by the board of the American Association of Ocular Oncologists and Pathologists (AAOOP). Prof. Dua is High Sheriff of Nottinghamshire in nomination, to assume office in 2021.
Mr Scott Hau
Mr Scott Hau is a Principal optometrist and Research optometrist at Moorfields Eye Hospital. He works in numerous external role ophthalmology clinics including Cornea/External Disease, Glaucoma, Laser, Adnexal and Uveitis. His main research interest is anterior segment imaging especially in the fields of in vivo confocal microscopy and anterior segment OCT, and he has published and lectured widely in these areas.
Prof. Christopher Liu; OBE, FRCOphth, FRCSEd, FRCP, CertLRS
Christopher Liu is Consultant Ophthalmic Surgeon, Sussex Eye Hospital, and Honorary Clinical Senior Lecturer, Brighton and Sussex Medical School, England. He was appointed in 1996 and specialises in the anterior segment of the eye. In addition to his clinical work, he is also Infection Control Lead for Ophthalmology, Research Lead for Ophthalmology, and Medical Advisory Committee Chair for the Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust. He has co-chaired the ophthalmology section of the Surrey and Sussex Comprehensive Local Research Network.
He has been President of two national specialist societies, the Medical Contact Lens and Ocular Surface Association (MCLOSA) and the British Society for Refractive Surgery (BSRS). He is Immediate Past President of the Southern Ophthalmological Society (SOS). He holds the Royal College of Ophthalmologists’ Certificate in Laser Refractive Surgery. He is the current Hon. Secretary of the United Kingdom and Ireland Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons (UKISCRS), and lectures widely both at home and abroad.
He is Visiting Professor at the Kinki University Medical School, Osaka, and the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS) in New Delhi. He is Visiting Senior Consultant at the Singapore National Eye Center, and Visiting Consultant at the Aarhus University Eye Department in Denmark. He is visiting fellow at the Aston University Biomaterials Research Unit. He leads the National Referral Centre for osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis surgery in Brighton. He has an international reputation for artificial corneae and the most difficult cases of cataract surgery, and has contributed a number of book chapters to ophthalmology text books. He has over 180 publications in the ophthalmic literature. Outside work, he is interested in music, haute cuisine, travelling, conservation and freemasonry. He is married to Vivienne and they have three children.
David Lockington; MB BCh BAO (Hons) FRCOphth
David Lockington is currently a Consultant Ophthalmologist at Tennent Institute of Ophthalmology, Glasgow, Scotland, with sub-specialist training in Cornea, Cataract and Anterior Segment. He has clinical sessions in the north of Glasgow, at Gartnavel, Stobhill and Glasgow Royal. Following 2 years of SHO training in the Northern Ireland ophthalmic rotation, he moved to Glasgow in 2007 for his Registrar ophthalmology training throughout the West of Scotland. He recently returned from a 1 year Cornea and Anterior Segment fellowship with Professor Charles McGhee at the University of Auckland in New Zealand where he remains an honorary clinical senior lecturer. He has an active interest in research and teaching, having achieved over 50 peer-reviewed publications despite being in full-time clinical training, and has received 6 awards at national and international conferences (including the Founders Medal) for his research and multiple oral presentations. His current job includes training junior ophthalmologists, acting as a College tutor and regular teaching sessions at WOSCOTT (the “Teach and Treat” facility for Optometrists based in the West of Scotland). His passion for teaching is demonstrated by recently obtaining a postgraduate diploma in Clinical Education. He is also a member of SOC, UKISCRS, ESCRS, AAO, a Member with Thesis of The Cornea Society and is a Fellow of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists.
Prof. Phil Murray; MBBS, DO(RCS), PhD, FRCP, FRCS, FRCOphth
Phil Murray undertook most of his clinical ophthalmology training at Moorfields Eye Hospital, London and his basic science laboratory training at the Institute of Ophthalmology, London and the Department of Ophthalmo-Immunology, Amsterdam.
He is Professor of Ophthalmology, Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, University of Birmingham. His laboratory research is focussed on understanding:
• why intraocular tolerance fails in uveitis?
• what immune mechanisms initiate and drive the inflammatory response?
• what can one do about it?
He is Honorary Consultant Ophthalmologist at the Birmingham and Midland Eye Centre (BMEC), Sandwell and West Birmingham Hospitals NHS Trust and runs 2 dedicated regional/supra-regional uveitis clinics per week. He enjoys the challenging and frustrating nature of uveitis but also finds it immensely rewarding. He is involved in clinical trials on novel therapies for uveitis and until relatively recently he had a special interest in cataract surgery on the uveitic eye. He is part of the Birmingham National Centre of Excellence for Behçet’s Syndrome.
He sits on numerous national committees, is Section Editor for three Journals and Examiner for the Part 2 FRCOphth, External Examiner for the Royal College of Surgeons of Ireland and External Examiner for the College of Optometrists. Between 2004-2016 he was Secretary of the International Uveitis Study Group. He has published nearly 200 peer-reviewed papers, contributed numerous book chapters and authored four textbooks, including the highly successful ‘Oxford Handbook of Ophthalmology’. He has a keen interest in undergraduate ophthalmology teaching (previously national lead for the RCOphth), an adviser to three national uveitis patient groups, helped set up a successful local patient involvement group in uveitis and an advocate of ‘The Patient Voice’. He is a fervent supporter of English Championship side, Brentford FC and plays baritone sax in Out Of The Blue Big Band and The Soul Providers (www.pimurray.com).
Mr. Mayank Nanavaty; DO, FRCOphth
Mr. Nanavaty is a consultant ophthalmic surgeon at Brighton & Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust. He specialize in cornea, external eye disease, cataract and refractive surgery. His areas of clinical interest include modern lamellar keratoplasties, ectatic corneal disease, endothelial disease, corneal collagen crosslinking and external eye disease. His areas of research interest include, keratoconus, endothelial disorders, intraocular lenses and cataract surgery. He has over 35 peer-reviewed publications in reputed international journals and over 100 presentations in national and international conferences. He is a regular invited faculty at the lamellar keratoplasty courses at American Academy of Ophthalmology along with several other courses in various international conferences since past several years.
Ms. Dalia G Said; MD, FRCS
Dr Dalia G Said is an assistant professor in the Research Institute of Ophthalmology in Cairo, Egypt. She is also a consultant ophthalmologist in Queens Medical Centre, Nottingham. She has trained both in Egypt and UK. Dr Said is a cornea and ocular surface specialist. Her areas of research interest are corneal infections, Lamellar keratoplasty, and stem cell transplantation. She has over 40 publications in peer reviewed journals.Dr Said has been a faculty on The Royal College of Ophthalmologist cornea course for the last 4 years. She helped develop the cornea service in Egypt and initiated multiple collaborative research projects between Egypt and the UK.
Mr. Derek M Tole; FRCOphth
Consultant in Cornea & External Eye Disease service for the Bristol Eye Hospital.
Medical Director for the Bristol Eye Bank.
Chair of the Ocular Tissues Advisory Group [OTAG] for NHS Blood -Transplant [NHSBT]
Mr. Mohamed Bahgat Goweida; Ms, PhD, FRCOphth, FRCS(Glasg)
Mohamed Is a consultant Cornea and External Eye Diseases in Alexandria Main University; as well as Assistant Professor in Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria University. He has over 50 presentations in national and international conferences and over 20 publications in peer reviewed journals. He is one of the pioneers in Egypt in the field of lamellar keratoplasty particularly DALK and DMEK. He established the first national Osteo-odonto-keratoprosthesis (OOKP) service in Egypt, after receiving training in Sussex Eye Hospital, and helped many desperate patients with end-stage corneal blindness. He is a regular contributor at many courses and congresses in Egypt and worldwide.
Prof James Chodosh, MD, MPH
James Chodosh is the David G. Cogan Professor of Ophthalmology in the Field of Cornea and External Disease at Harvard Medical School, Associate Director of the Cornea and Refractive Surgery Service at Mass. Eye and Ear, Associate Director of the Infectious Disease Institute at Harvard Medical School, Director of Boston Keratoprosthesis, Mass. Eye and Ear, Director of the Ocular Burn Service at Mass. Eye and Ear, and Director of Education and Fellowship Training for the Harvard Cornea Service. He completed his residency in Ophthalmology at Baylor College of Medicine in Houston, Texas, clinical fellowship in Corneal Diseases at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute in Miami, Florida, research postdoctoral fellowship in Virology & Molecular Biology and Infectious Diseases at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee, and Masters of Public Health degree with a concentration in Biostatistics at the University of Oklahoma in Oklahoma City. He received the Career Development, Lew R. Wasserman, Physician Scientist, and Senior Scientific Investigator Awards from Research to Prevent Blindness, and the Alcon Research Institute Award. He served as Chair of the Anterior Eye Disease Study Section for the National Institutes of Health and subsequently served on the National Advisory Eye Council. Dr. Chodosh has published over 250 peer reviewed papers and book chapters on various aspects of science and medicine, and personally trained over 50 clinical cornea fellows. His primary clinical interests include medical and surgical treatment of infectious disorders of the ocular surface, the longitudinal care of patients affected by chemical injury and Stevens Johnson syndrome, and the visual restoration of seemingly hopeless cases of corneal blindness with the Boston keratoprosthesis. His research on ocular adenovirus infections has been funded continuously by the NIH since 1996.
Mr Ahmed Shalaby Bardan; MS FRCOphth FRCSEd
Ahmed Shalaby Bardan is a Lecturer at the Department of Ophthalmology, University of Alexandria, Egypt. He is an Honorary Clinical Lecturer at the Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, UK. He’s recently been appointed by Northampton General Hospital, UK as an Ophthalmology consultant with sub-specialist interest in Cornea and External eye diseases. Following basic and higher specialty training in Alexandria University hospitals, he completed a 2 year fellowship in Cornea, Anterior segment diseases and Keratoprostheses at Sussex Eye Hospital, Brighton, UK. He contributed to international wet lab courses on DMEK and other lamellar corneal transplantation techniques.
Mr Mehran Zarei Ghanavati; MD, FICO
Mehran Zarei Ghanavati is an associate professor of ophthalmology and director of stem cell lab in Farabi Eye Hospital; Tehran University of Medical Sciences. He completed his fellowships in external disease, cataract and anterior segment at Farabi Eye Hospital and cornea and artificial keratoplasty (supported by Helmerich Award-International Council of Ophthalmology) at Sussex Eye Hospital in Brighton, UK. His clinical focus is in lamellar keratoplasty, artificial keratoplasty and limbal stem cell transplantation.
Mr Mandeep S. Sagoo; MB, PhD, FRCS (Ed), FRCOphth
Mr Mandeep Sagoo is Professor of Ophthalmology and Ocular Oncology at UCL Institute of Ophthalmology and Consultant Ophthalmic Surgeon with subspecialist interest in adult and paediatric eye tumours at the London Ocular Oncology Service at Moorfields Eye Hospital and St. Bartholomew’s Hospital and the London Retinoblastoma Service at Royal London Hospital.
Having graduated from Cambridge University, he undertook residency in Ophthalmology at Oxford and then Moorfields Eye Hospital. His Fellowship training was in Ocular Oncology, as a Fulbright Scholar, under Dr Jerry Shields and Dr Carol Shields at Wills Eye Hospital and Medical Retina Fellowship at Moorfields. He holds over 20 academic awards and prizes, including the Gedge Prize of Cambridge University, John Glyn Young Fellows Prize of Royal Society of Medicine, PJ Hay Medal of the North of England Ophthalmology Society, the Syme Medal and the King James IV Professorship of Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh. He has written 5 book chapters and over 100 academic papers. He is a Member of Macula Society, Council Member of Oxford Ophthalmological Congress and has served as Honorary Secretary of the International Society of Ocular Oncology.
Prof. Paolo Rama
Paolo Rama is Director of the Cornea and Ocular Surface Unit at San Raffaele Hospital (Milano), Director of the Eye Repair Lab - San Raffaele Scientific Institute, and Professor at the University of Milano. He graduated in Medicine and Surgery in 1985 at Padua University and became a Specialist in Ophthalmology in 1989 at the University of Modena. He obtained a “Research Fellowship” (1991/1992) at the Wilmer Institute of the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore.
His main fields of competence are corneal and ocular surface diseases. He was the first person to apply NGF eye-drops to treat patients affected by neurotrophic corneal ulcers (New England Journal of Medicine 1998). The treatment has been recently approved by EMA in Europe and by FDA in US under the name of Oxervate®. He was also one of the first surgeons to transplant cultivated limbal epithelial stem cells: preliminary results published in the Transplantation Journal (2001) and long term results published in The New England Journal of Medicine (2010). The treatment has been recently approved by EMA in Europe under the name of Holoclar®.
Mr. Vito Romano
Vito Romano is a consultant ophthalmic surgeon at The Royal Liverpool University Hospital and an honorary senior lecturer at the University of Liverpool. Deputy director of Clinical Eye Research Centre at The Royal Liverpool University Hospital. His clinical expertise is in corneal and ocular surface diseases, and in particular patients with keratoconus and endothelial dysfunction. He also has an interest in cornea and ocular surface imaging particularly in patients with corneal neovascularization and ocular surface inflammatory diseases. His research interest is in strategies to improve graft survival and keratoconus.
Dan Z Reinstein; MD MA(Cantab) FRCSC DABO FRCOphth FEBO
Professor Dan Z. Reinstein is the Founder and Medical Director of the London Vision Clinic, and holds Professorships at Columbia University Medical Center, New York, Ulster University, Coleraine, and Sorbonne Université, Paris. He is lead Refractive Surgery consultant for Carl Zeiss Meditec, produced their PRESBYOND Laser Blended Vision treatment module for presbyopia, and was a key investigator in developing SMILE. He was the first to bring epithelial mapping to keratoconus screening and the extensive applications in Therapeutic Refractive Surgery. His textbook The Surgeon’s Guide to SMILE was published in April 2018. He is editor for the Therapeutic Refractive Surgery section of the Journal of Refractive Surgery and has published over 160 peer-reviewed papers, a majority in the area of corneal very high-frequency digital ultrasound imaging and biometry using the Artemis Insight 100 technology, which he co-invented while at Cornell University in the early 1990s.
Mr. Leon Au
Leon graduated from the University of Nottingham in 1998 with an ophthalmology prize of the year. He completed 8 years of general ophthalmology training in Nottingham and Manchester before undertaking separate sub-specialty training fellowships in cornea, glaucoma and refractive surgery. He has been a dual-specialty consultant in the Manchester Royal Eye Hospital since February 2009.
His major areas of expertise are glaucoma, cornea related problems, external eye disease and cataract . He is one of the international leader in innovative Minimally Invasive Glaucoma Surgery (MIGS) and conducts clinical trails in many of these new technologies.He publishes his research regularly in peer-reviewed medical journals and he lectures in the field of cornea and glaucoma in both national and international conferences.
Mr. Kieren Darcy; BM MRCS(Eng) CertLRS FRCOphth MBA
Mr. Kieren Darcy is the Head of Corneal and Refractive Surgery at the internationally respected Bristol Eye Hospital, which is part of the University of Bristol NHS Foundation Trust. Mr. Darcy started his career as a General Surgeon and is a Member of the Royal College of Surgeons, England. He moved into Ophthalmology in 2007, training in London and the South-West of England. He was the winner of the revered Harcourt Medal during his training. He has done two subspecialist fellowships in Corneal and Refractive Surgery. The first in Bristol and the second in the highly acclaimed Royal Victorian Eye and Ear Hospital, Melbourne, Australia.
Mr. Darcy has a real passion for patient safety and outcomes. He sits on the Royal College of Ophthalmologists, Refractive Surgery Working Group, which is a committee tasked with redefining standards and a new accreditation process for Refractive Surgeons wishing to practice in the UK. Mr Darcy is an honorary lecturer at the University of Bristol. He is actively involved in teaching and runs the Corneal and Refractive fellowship programme at Bristol Eye Hospital. Mr Darcy also leads and lectures on many local and international instructional courses on Corneal, Cataract and Refractive Surgery. Including the Alcon Advanced Cataract Training Course, which offers free access to Surgeons from around the UK to learn advanced cataract surgical techniques. Mr Darcy is actively involved in clinical research and has published in many international journals. He uses this to benefit patients often gaining special early access to new treatments.
Mr Oliver Bowes; MA, MBBS, FRCOphth
Oliver is a Consultant Ophthalmic Surgeon at Barking, Havering & Redbridge University Hospitals NHS Trust specialising in Cataract, Cornea & External Eye Disease.
He graduated from University College London Medical School with Distinction in Medical Sciences in 2009. During his residency in the East of England Deanery, he was Chair of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists’ Trainee Group and undertook the Cambridge University Chief Residents’ Leadership and Management Programme. He has completed Corneal Fellowships at Cambridge University Hospitals and Moorfields Eye Hospital.
Prior to Medicine, he read Natural Sciences at Cambridge University, completed a Research Internship in Chromosome Condensation in New York and worked as a Corporate Finance Executive for KPMG in London.
Mr Jaswant Sandhu; BSc(hons), MB ChB, MClinRes, FRCOphth
Jas initially completed Optometry training prior to undertaking Medicine at Manchester University. He completed his Ophthalmology training in the Northern region, during which he undertook a Masters of Clinical Research at Newcastle University and graduated with distinction.
He has a broad range of experience of delivering clinical education, and has previously been appointed a faculty member at the University of Manchester and Keele University. He has been invited to speak at national and international meetings, and the recipient of a number of regional and national awards. He is currently undertaking a corneal and external eye diseases fellowship at Moorfields Eye Hospital.
Mr Alfonso Vasquez-Perez MD,FEBO,FRCOphth,CertLRS,FEBOS-CR
Alfonso initially completed his Ophthalmology training in Barcelona Spain, where he also continued further training in complex cataract surgery before moving to the UK. He undertook two fellowships in Cornea; one year at the Sussex Eye Hospital in Brighton and then two years at Moorfields Eye Hospital. He has a broad range of experience in Cornea and Anterior segment and is currently a locum Consultant in Cornea at King’s College Hospital. He has over twenty publications in peer reviewed journals and has received five awards at national and international conferences. His main areas of interest include, keratoconus, lamellar corneal transplantation, KPro Refractive surgery and Cataract surgery.
Mr. Venkata Avadhanam; MS, FRCS, FRCOphth
Venkat is a locum consultant in Cornea & External Eye Disease service for the Bristol Eye Hospital; and Honorary Clinical Lecturer at the Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Brighton, UK.